This is the famous US Department of Agriculture Soil Food Web graphic but in vector so great for publications of posters. They gave me the files/permission to improve it. If you would like to put this graphic on your site please use the code below:
Fertigation as a method became widely used in the early 2000s. Basically the this is a way to supply plants with nutrients, usually in the form of fertilizers. In fact it can be used as well to bring to the soil amendments and different other materials like agricultural chemicals. Fertigation is one of the most effective ways used in order to fertilize crops because practically there is no waste of fertilizer when it is applied. The application of the fertilizer is made directly via the irrigation system together with the water itself. This fact allows precise control of the quantity and frequency of application of the fertilizer. The main principle of fertigation is to supply the growing plants with fertilizer little by little.
Usually fertigation works in the so called “fertigation systems” and it’s always combined with the existing irrigation system. Meaning that where the irrigation water goes to the same place goes the fertilizers. The distribution of nutrients in this system is controlled and they are applied only when needed and in calculated quantities. In short fertigation is simply irrigating crops with nutrient enriched water with controlled pH.
Fertigation systems can control:
• The applied quantity of fertilizer
• The length and timing of fertilizer applications
• The amount of the different fertilisers
The benefits of using fertigation can be divided in two main groups: benefits for the plants and economical ones.
Using fertigation system will help the plants grow well developed green parts. It’s essential that the roots are healthy, because they are mediator that is connecting the nutrients and the plants. The constant levels of nutrients help plants have steady nutrition regime which results in healthy plants that are less disposed to droughts and diseases.
Talking about the economic benefits on the first place must be mentioned the tree main items of expenditure these are the labor, the machinery and the cost of the fertilizers. The irrigation system is doing all the hard woks so the only manual labor is supplying the system with fertilizer, monitoring of the crops and making some adjustments if needed. The machinery is no longer needed as well. Because the fertilizer is brought to the plants in a form that can be directly absorbed there is no need for “overdosing in advance”. This overdosing results in runoff which causes pollution. So fertigation has some significant ecological benefits as well.
Methods of dosification
Quantitative method. This method is used when the fertigation system uses a fertilizing tank. The concentration is predefined and the fertilizer is applied only after the irrigation process has started.
Proportional method. In this case the fertilizers are applied by injection pumps. The concentration is fixed and proportional to the water sheet.
Methods of application of / injection the fertilizer
Continuous method. In this method the application of the fertilizer has constant rate from the begging to the end of the irrigation.
Three-stage method. The injection of the fertilizer is performed after the irrigation started and before it finished. This means that the fertilizing starts only after the soil is wet.
Proportional method. This is very simple method which is based on the proportion between the water and the fertilizer. It’s applied with constant proportions for example 1:1000 (fertilizer to water).
Quantitative method. This is the method that allows nutrients to be strictly controlled. It is allowing to apply different amounts of fertilizer to the different irrigated blocks(measured in liters of solution).
When choosing the injection method it is crucial to take the one that best suits the irrigation system and the crop to be cultivated. Incorrect injection method can damage the irrigation system and harm the effectiveness of the nutrients. For example if the pipes of the irrigation system are very long than there is a high chance that the nutrients will not reach till the end in cases like that it’s very important to install some supporting tools (like extra pumps) that will help the liquid transportation.
When using a fertigation system the issue connected to the fertilizers is very important as well. When preparing the solution there are few points that must be taken under consideration:
• Fertilizers compatibility and solubility
• Number of stock tanks
• Injection time
• Types of the fertilizers
• The use of chelates
• Reaction of fertilizers with water
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List of conversions below: Acres to Metres, Metres to Acres Acre Feet to Cubic Metres Cubic Metres to Acre Feet Feet to Centimetres Centimetres to Feet Gallons to Litres Litres to Gallons Gallons per Acre to Litres per Hectare Litres per Hectare to Gallons per Acre Grams per Litre to PPM PPM to Grams per Litre Acres to Hectares Hectares to Acres inches to centimetres Centimetres to inches Pounds to Kilograms Kilograms to Pounds Pounds per Acre to Kg per Hectare Kg per Hectare to Pounds per Acre Pounds per Gallon to Kg per Litre Kg per Litre to Pounds per Gallon Kilometres to Metres Metres to Kilometers Ounces to Litres Litres to Ounces Gallons per 1000sq.ft to Litres per 100sq.m Litres per 100sq.m to Gallons per 1000sq.ft Gallons per Litre to Litres per Hectare Litres per Hectare to Gallons Per Acre Feet to Metres Metres to Feet Metres to Centimetres Centimetres to Metres Square Feet to Square Metres Square Metres to Square Feet Cubic Feet to Cubic Metres Cubic Metres to Cubic Feet Mile to Kilometres Kilometres to Miles Miles per Hour to Kilometres per Hour Kilometres per Hour to Miles per Hour Ounces to Millilitres Millilitres to Ounces Percent to grams per Kilogram Grams per Kilogram to Percent Square Feet to Square Metres Square Metres to Square Feet P205 to P P to P205 K20 to K K to K20 Calcium ppm to Calcium Meq/100g Calcium Meq/100g to Calcium ppm Magnesium ppm to Magnesium Meq/100g Magnesium Meq/100g to Magnesium ppm Potassium ppm to Potassium Meq/100g Potassium Meq/100g to Potassium ppm Sodium ppm to Sodium Meq/100g Sodium Meq/100g to Sodium ppm Calcium ppm to Calcium Meq/L Calcium Meq/L to ppm Magnesium ppm to Magnesium Meq/L Magnesium Meq/L to Magnesium ppm Potassium ppm to Potassium Meq/L Potassium Meq/L to Potassium ppm Sodium ppm to Sodium Meq/L Sodium Meq/L to Sodium ppm
|Ca (Calcium)||CaO (Calcium oxide)||1.3994|
|Ca (Calcium)||CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate)||2.5|
|CaO (Calcium oxide)||Ca (Calcium)||0.7146|
|CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate)||Ca (Calcium)||0.4|
|K (Potassium)||K2O (Potassium oxide)||1.2047|
|K2O (Potassium oxide)||K (Potassium)||0.8301|
|Mg (Magnessium)||MgO (Magnessium oxide)||1.6581|
|MgO (Magnessium oxide)||Mg (Magnessium)||0.6031|
|P (Phosphorous)||P2O5 (Phosphate)||2.2915|
|P2O5 (Phosphate)||P (Phosphorous)||0.4364|
|N (Nitrogen)||NO3– (Nitrate)|
|NO3– (Nitrate)||N (Nitrogen)|
|N (Nitrogen)||(NH2)2CO (Urea)|
|(NH2)2CO (Urea)||N (Nitrogen)|
|N (Nitrogen)||NH3 (Ammonium)|
|NH3 (Ammonium)||N (Nitrogen)|
|N (Nitrogen)||Protien (General)|
|Protien (General)||N (Nitrogen)|
|Si (Silicon)||SiO2 (Silica)|
|SiO2 (Silica)||Si (Silicon)|
|Al (Aluminium)||Al2O3 (Aluminium oxide)|
|Al2O3 (Aluminium oxide)||Al (Aluminium)|
|Fe (Iron)||FeO (Iron oxide)|
|FeO (Iron oxide)||Fe (Iron)|
|Fe (Iron)||Fe2O3 (Iron (III) oxide)|
|Fe2O3 (Iron (III) oxide)||Fe (Iron)|
|Fe (Iron)||Fe3O4 (Magnetite)|
|Fe3O4 (Magnetite)||Fe (Iron)|
|Na (Sodium)||Na2O (Sodium oxide)|
|Na2O (Sodium oxide)||Na (Sodium)|
|Na (Sodium)||NaCl (Sodium chloride)|
|NaCl (Sodium Chloride)||Na (Sodium)|
|Ti (Titanium)||TiO2 (Titanium dioxide)|
|TiO2 (Titanium dioxide)||Ti (Titanium)|
|Mn (Manganese)||MnO (Manganese oxide)|
|MnO (Manganese Oxide)||Mn (Manganese)|
|S (Sulphur)||SO3 (Sulphur trioxide)|
|SO3 (Sulphur trioxide)||S (Sulphur)|
|S (Sulphur)||SO32- (Sulfite)|
|SO32- (Sulfite)||S (Sulphur)|
|S (Sulphur)||SO4 (Sulphate)|
|SO4 (Sulphate)||S (Sulphur)|
|Sr (Strontium)||SrO (Strontium oxide)|
|SrO (Strontium oxide)||Sr (Strontium)|
Example: To convert 10 acres to hectares is 10 multiply by 0.4047 = 4.047 hectares.